Yoga dictionary. Dukkha
Patanjali in his Yoga sutras pays much attention to this. He considers such a term as “Dukha”. Also, this term is widely used in Buddhism, being one of the Central concepts of the Four Noble Truths proclaimed by the Buddha Shakyamuni. However, Patanjali considers such a phenomenon as Dukha in more detail and explains the causes.
From Sanskrit the term “Dukha” can be translated as `restless dissatisfaction`, `painful experience`, `anguish`, `unbearability`. The most popular translation for the Russian language is `suffering’, but this word does not fully reflect The essence that dukha carries. It is a deeper concept than mere suffering. Suffering often refers to specific painful experiences that arise from physical or mental discomfort. Dukha, on the other hand, means rather a tendency of the mind which arises for two reasons: because of the impermanence of the world and because of attachment to something or someone. Continue reading
Yoga dictionary. Vikalpa
Translated from Sanskrit “vikalpa” means “fantasy”, “imagination”. In the yoga sutras Patanjali gives a detailed explanation of such phenomena as Vritti. In the Sutra of the fifth Chapter of the first, Patanjali describes their effect on the mind. In A. Bailey’s version of the translation, the Sutra reads:”there are five States of mind, and they are subject to pleasure or pain, they are painful or not painful.” Later in the sixth Sutra of the same Chapter, Patanjali enumerates the five kinds of Vritti. In A. Bailey’s version of the translation, the Sutra reads: “These modifications are right knowledge, wrong knowledge, fantasy, passivity and memory.” Among the other five types of Vritti, Patanjali mentions here such a phenomenon as Vikalpa, which in A. Bailey’s translation means “fantasy”. In Swami Vivekananda’s version of the translation, “vikalpa “is”verbal illusions”. Krishnamacharya offers the meaning “of vikalpa” as “imagination”. Continue reading
Yoga dictionary. Vitarka
By and large, we achieve some kind of” enlightenment ” every day. Any awareness of anything, any life lesson passed-this is a kind of”enlightenment”. Therefore, enlightenment is an endless process, because, as we know, evolution, as well as degradation, have no end point. There is no limit to both perfection and regression.
If we talk about concepts more specifically, in yoga there is such a term as “Samadhi”. As you know, Sanskrit is a very complex language, and one word can have up to fifty different meanings. According to the yoga sutras of Patanjali, Samadhi is the ultimate stage of yoga. Again, the final stage does not mean the highest point of perfection. It is perhaps fair to say that yoga only begins at the level of Samadhi. Continue reading